. Many Japanese Americans were forced to relinquish their farms and moved elsewhere, a practice that became formal U.S. policy with incarceration during World War II. .

Sec. 254; "An Act to Amend Sections 2419 and 2420 of the Code of Washington Territory Relating to Aliens," 1885 Wash. Terr.

The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 was a product of the paranoia of the McCarthy era and objectionable in many ways -- President Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) vetoed it as un-American, but the veto was overridden. It affected the Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Korean immigrant farmers in California.

For example, the amount of agricultural land controlled by Japanese decreased by approximately 40 percent between 1920 and 1930, and total acres farmed by Japanese persons declined by 47 percent.

Any company, association or corporation organized under the laws of this or any other state or nation, of which a majority of the members are aliens other than those specified in section one of this act, or in which a majority of the issued capital stock is owned by such aliens, may acquire, possess, enjoy and convey real property, or any interest therein, in this state, in the manner and to the extent and for the purposes prescribed by any treaty no existing between the government of the United States and the nation or country of which such members or stockholders are citizens or subjects, and not otherwise, and may in addition thereto lease lands in this state for agricultural purposes for a term not exceeding three years…, Sec. The Alien Land Bill had an immediate and drastic effect. . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993.

This tension between the demand for cheap labor and prejudice against foreign "others" would play out in increasingly regrettable ways well into the twentieth century. Meanwhile, gold was found in scattered areas of Oregon and Washington Territory. The Supreme Court declared such laws constitutional in 1923, and California’s law remained on the books until 1956, although court cases had invalidated the 1920 and 1913 Alien Land Laws in Oyama v, California (1948) and Fuji Sei v. State of California (1952). Commentary by Franklin Odo:​ California led the way for fifteen states to pass legislation preventing “aliens ineligible to citizenship” from owning land. ", Iwata Masakazu. Implicitly, the law was primarily directed at the Japanese. ”No Right to Own? Implicitly, the law was primarily directed at the Japanese. The Free Encyclopedia of Washington State History. Several hundred Chinese workers came north in the late 1850s and early 1860s, many to glean fragments of gold from claims that earlier miners had abandoned as being worked out. It also prohibited stock companies owned by aliens ineligible for citizenship from acquiring agricultural lands. Ch. amend.

The Issei: The World of the First Generation Japanese Immigrants, 1885-1924


http://www.riversideca.gov/museum/harada.asp, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. In 1892 the ban was extended for another 10 years, and in 1902 it was made permanent.

Source for information on California Alien Land Law: Dictionary of American History dictionary.

The governments of many western states targeted  Japanese Americans by passing legislation that banned “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from owning or leasing land.

anti-Japanese hysteria Looking ahead, the statute provided that "Land hereafter conveyed to or for the use of aliens in violation of the constitution or of this act shall thereby be forfeited to and become the property of the state" (1921 Laws 50, Sec.

Rights to agricultural land, unprotected by treaty, thus became the focus for the Alien Land Laws, as state-level deterrents to immigration were sought in a dearth of federal-level involvement.

The legislative debates had demonstrated that the bill's primary -- perhaps only -- intent was to prevent Japanese farmers from buying or leasing land, but its ambit was much broader.

California passed its own amendment to its alien land law in 1920, prohibiting even short-term leases of land to aliens ineligible for citizenship. Japanese Americans succeeded in establishing farms supported by ethnic networks that facilitated purchasing of supplies and equipment, transportation, and marketing.

When the gold ran out and the economy cooled, resentment against the Chinese grew. This conclusion is amply evidenced by a different law passed earlier in the 1863 session, the title of which says it all: "An Act to Protect Free White Labor Against Competition with Chinese Coolie Labor, and to Discourage the Immigration of the Chinese into This Territory" (1863 Wash. Terr. Like other discriminatory measures aimed at preventing minorities from establishing homes and businesses in certain areas, such as redlining and restrictive covenants, many alien land laws remained technically in effect, forgotten or ignored, for many years after enforcement of the laws fell out of practice.[2]. [14] Fujii was a longtime Los Angeles resident, but was not a U.S. citizen. The delegates drafted a proposed constitution that, although a dead letter, evidenced an inclination to limit the property rights of aliens.

Daniels, Roger, The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the Struggle for Japanese Exclusion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962). (ed.)

The first two criminal prohibitions were selling land to an alien or holding land in trust for an alien.

[3] Following the pattern set by the anti-Chinese movement, anti-Japanese lobbyists first limited Japanese immigration to the U.S. with the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 and then stopped East Asian immigration completely with the Immigration Act of 1924. Many workers returning from World War I felt that the Japanese were infringing on their job opportunities. , 87, No. Lyon, Cherstin.

Many Japanese immigrants settled in California and relocated to rural areas after they initially landed in cities.

It wasn't enough, and first California (in 1913 and, by initiative, in 1920), then Washington (1921), then Oregon (1923) passed stringent laws that, while racially neutral on their face, were targeted almost exclusively at the Japanese. become and remain property of the State of California….

The Supreme Court declared such laws constitutional in 1923, and California’s law remained on the books until 1956, although court cases had invalidated the 1920 and 1913 Alien Land Laws in Oyama v, California (1948) and Fuji Sei v. State of California (1952). Because the Naturalization Act of 1870 had extended citizenship rights only to African Americans but not other ethnic groups, these laws relied on coded language excluding "aliens ineligible for citizenship" to prohibit primarily Chinese and Japanese immigrants from becoming landowners without explicitly naming any racial group. They are in possession of the farm land and have their schools where they teach antagonism to the United States.

By the first decade of the twentieth century, Japanese immigrants were equally vilified, but for different reasons: "[T]he racism targeting the Japanese bore a different character, one not just of felt white supremacy but also of white jealousy. This method was a major way in which the Japanese were able to acquire agricultural land during this period, since most other options were closed to them. The Crown was not amused, and in 1773 the English governors of the colonies were ordered to veto any legislation that eased impediments to alien land ownership. Substitute "this territory" for "this state" and the provision is identical to the liberal territorial statute of 1864, which remained in effect until 1885. By 1920, Japanese farmers supplied nearly 75 percent of the vegetables consumed in King County and nearly half the dairy products.

The Supreme Court declared such laws constitutional in 1923, and California’s law remained on the books until 1956, although court cases had invalidated the 1920 and 1913 Alien Land Laws in Oyama v, California (1948) and Fuji Sei v. State of California (1952).

, 1918). By 1885 Washington Territory's population was about 130,000. 7[g]).


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