[73] In the 14th century, the Pandyan empire was engulfed in a civil war and also had to face repeated invasions by the Delhi Sultanate.

[202], Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based on older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis. [152] Many of the rich Tamil literature works were written by Jains. The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as avārai. [125], A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. Hindi is among the oldest languages to be discovered by mankind, which has its roots laid back in around the 10th Century AD.

Hook (eds.). The "Nakar" used the cobra totem known as "Nakam" in the Tamil language, which is still part of the Hindu Tamil tradition in Sri Lanka today as a subordinate deity. Most Tamils in India live in the state of Tamil Nadu. The worship of Amman, also called Mariamman, thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess, is also very common.

[178] Another sign of its reputation is seen in a Persian phrase – to give an "Indian answer", meaning "a cut with an Indian sword". [65] The Chola emperor decisively defeated and repulsed an invasion by the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI who tried to interfere in Chola politics by installing his puppet. [14], From the 4th century BC onwards,[15] urbanisation and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states, the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance. The current version has audio-visual courses and quizzes to learn English from almost all Indian languages and vice versa. [198] As a result, one often sees in stone sculptures flowing forms that are usually reserved for metal. It was a self-sacrifice of a warrior to the goddess of war for the victory of his commander. These wars resulted in a victory for the Cholas and led to the annexation of Gangavadi and Konkan regions. This is the reason why English is the second language learned by most of the people. Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)". They conquered the coastal areas around the Bay of Bengal and turned it into a Chola lake. [173] Since the early Sangam age, there was a warlike culture in South India. Deshpande and P.E. [75] This socio-culturally transformation was altered through Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Aryan migration from Northern India in the 8th century. Tamil Meaning of Creative. [117], There are two groups of Tamils in Sri Lanka: the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils. p. 380, Herbert Henery Coghlan. Tolkappiyam mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumal in Mullai-the forests, Korravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas.

and households comprising only unrelated persons.

They carried a suicide pill around their neck to escape captivity and torture. [23][24], It is unknown whether the term Tamiḻar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda, Dhamila and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. [115] The Sri Lankan government allegedly committed war crimes against the civilian Sri Lankan Tamil people during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009, when the leader of the Tigers, Prabhakaran, was killed.

Ceylon remained in political union with India until India's independence in 1947; it gained independence the following year, as Sri Lanka, with both Sinhalese and Tamil populations. Definition of Creative in the Online Tamil Dictionary. Use this free dictionary to get the definition of capability in Hindi and also the definition of capability in English.

Meanwhile, his lieutenant Vira Pandya defeated the king of Lanka and obtained the submission of the island nation.

The 12th century Arab traveler Edrisi mentioned the "Hinduwani" or Indian steel as the best in the world.

[84], Early South Indian type black and red ware potsherds found in Sri Lanka, indicate that both region were bound by similar culture and identity. Use this free dictionary to get the definition of friend in Tamil and also the definition of friend in English. Mangoes & Curry Leaves: Culinary Travels Through the Great Subcontinent, Jeffrey Alford, Naomi Duguid, Artisan Books, 1 November 2005, p. 146. excavated in the south of the island in Tissamaharama, An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, 200 BCE Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, List of languages by first written accounts, Statement 1 : Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011, "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 – Table A3: Population by district, ethnic group and sex", "Basic Demographic Characteristics: Table 6 Indian Resident Population by Age Group, Dialect Group and Sex", General Household Survey 2015 - Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, Republic of Singapore, "A2: Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012", http://statsmauritius.govmu.org/English/StatsbySubj/Documents/Digest/Demographic13.pdf, "Prehistoric genomes from the world's first farmers in the Zagros mountains reveal different Neolithic ancestry for Europeans and South Asians", "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century", "Reading the past in a more inclusive way: Interview with Dr. Sudharshan Seneviratne", "Independence-seeking Tigers already run a shadow state", Cambridge Review of International Affairs, "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN", "Sri Lanka: New Evidence of Wartime Abuses", "Almost 5 million Tamils live outside Tamil Nadu, inside India", "Strangers to their roots, and those around them", "New Beginnings: Tamil Heritage in Toronto", "The Tamil Community in Canada: A Brief Overview", "Census 2001 – Statewise population by Religion", "Murukan in Cankam Literature: Veriyattu Tribal Worship", "Principles and Practice of Hindu Religion", Information on declaration of holiday on the event of birth anniversary of Vaikundar in, "Horse Shrines in Tamil India: Reflections on Modernity", "The Milieu of the Ancient Tamil Poems, Prof. George Hart", To Heal and/or To Harm: The Vital Spots in Two South Indian Martial Traditions, Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India, TECHNOLOGY OF IRON AND STEEL IN KODUMANAL-, "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil", "Tissamaharama potsherd evidences ordinary early Tamils among population", "Striving hard to revive and refine ethnic dance form", "Traditional martial arts not given due importance", "Veteran hockey players delighted with synthetic turf in Tiruchi", "Memories of Madras: From Sholavaram to Irungattukottai", "Ajith Kumar to drive in F2 European season 2010", "Paralympics 2016 | Mariyappan Thangavelu wins India's first gold in Rio", "Paralympian Mariyappan Thangavelu's Golden Leap From Poverty", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tamils&oldid=987959846, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Instances of Lang-ta using second unnamed parameter, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. While the Marakkayar and Kayalar sects claim descent from the Arab world, the Rowther and Lebbai sects claim descent from the Turkic world. In Tamil Nadu, Christians and Muslims account for 6% and 5.8% respectively. [26] In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya (Tamil trader) datable to the 3rd century AD.

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (Tamil: தமிழர், romanized: Tamiḻar, pronounced in the singular or தமிழர்கள், Tamiḻarkaḷ, [tamiɻaɾxaɭ] in the plural) or simply Tamils (/ ˈ t æ m ɪ l s /), are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry to the South Indian state of Tamil …


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