through radiative cooling, or ground contact with cold terrain).

In meteorology, the various types of precipitation often include the character or phase of the precipitation which is falling to ground level. In the initial stages of this precipitation, it generally falls as showers with rapidly changing intensity. To apply one and a half inches of water, which is 15 tenths of water, you would have to apply water in that area for a total of 150 minutes. This type of transition is sharper,[further explanation needed] since cold air is more dense than warm air. where: Pr is precipitation rate in inches per hour. There are two methods to calculate the rate at which sprinklers apply water, or the precipitation rate. They can be subdivided into: The parenthesized letters are the METAR codes for each phenomenon.[1]. This calculation is best suited for determining the average precipitation rate for a system, or a portion of a system, that uses sprinklers with differing arcs, flow rates, and spacings. (from sprinkler charts). There are three distinct ways that precipitation can occur. Total GPM is the cumulative flow from all sprinklers in the specified area, in gallons per minute. Stratiform precipitation occurs when large air masses rise diagonally as larger-scale atmospheric dynamics force them to move over each other. Warm fronts occur where warm air pushes out a previously extant cold air mass. times 12 inches per foot. When the visibility is over 1 kilometre (0.62 mi), snow is determined to be light. [4] In mid-latitude regions, convective precipitation is often associated with cold fronts where as it is often found behind the front, occasionally initiating a squall line. Convective precipitation is generally more intense, and of shorter duration, than stratiform precipitation.

When classified according to the rate of precipitation, rain can be divided into categories. The first uses empirical field measurement. Frontal precipitation typically falls out of nimbostratus clouds.[5]. This is as simple as measuring rainfall. Frontal precipitation is the result of frontal systems surrounding extratropical cyclones or lows, which form when warm and tropical air meets cooler air. 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2179:spiroc>;2. Total Area. Convection occurs when the Earth's surface, especially within a conditionally unstable or moist atmosphere, becomes heated more than its surroundings and in turn leading to significant evaporation. Total Area is the area irrigated, in square feet.

When masses of air with different densities (moisture and temperature characteristics) meet, the less dense warmer air overrides the more dense colder air. Light rain describes rainfall which falls at a rate of between a trace and 2.5 millimetres (0.098 in) per The warmer air is forced to rise and, if conditions are right, creates an effect of saturation, causing precipitation. Local climates vary considerably on each island due to their topography, divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) regions based upon location relative to the higher mountains. In this example, we are using what is called the Total Area Method. Liquid forms of precipitation include rain and drizzle and dew. The irrigation plan should show the following: • Irrigation point(s) of connection and design capacity;• Water service pressure at irrigation POCs;• Water meter size;• Reduced-pressure-principle backflow-prevention devices for each irrigation POC on potable water systems;• Major components of the irrigation system, including all pumps, filters, valves, and pipe sizes and lengths.• Precipitation rate expressed in inches per hour for each valve circuit. Graupel and hail indicate convection when either are present at the surface, it is indicative that some form of precipitation is extant at the freezing level, a varying point in the atmosphere in which the temperature is 0°C. Precipitation is measured using a rain gauge, and more recently remote sensing techniques such as weather radar. Convective and stratiform rainfall in the tropics. [8] On the island of Oahu, clouds and often rain can usually be observed around the windward mountain peaks, while the southern parts of the island (including most of Honolulu and Waikiki) receive dramatically less rainfall throughout the year.


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